Indrect Cümleleri Direct Cümleye Çevirmek

Yayınlanma 9.Sınıf İngilizce Konu Anlatımı

Direct

Meral told Ahmet, "I want a cake."

 

Bu cümleyi "Indirect" cümleye nasıl çevirdik?

1- Tırnak ve virgülü kaldırdık.

Tekrar yerine koyun.

 

2- Konuşan Meral olduğu için özneyi "she" olarak değiştirdik. "She" olarak değiştirdik.

"She" öznesini tekrar "I" olarak değiştirin.

 

3- Giriş cümlesi ile ana cümlenin arasına "that" bağlacı getirdik.

Şimde "That" bağlacını kaldırın.

 

4- Tırnak içindeki cümlenin zamanı Simple Present = Geniş zaman olduğu için bunu Simple past = -di'li geçmiş zamana çevirdik.

Simple Past Tense'şi tekrar Simple Present Tense yapın.

 

Böylece "Indirect" cümleyi tekrar "Direct" cümle şekline çevirmiş olursunuz.

 

Demekki burada ters bir işlem uygulanıyor. "Direct" bir cümleyi "Indirect" cümleye çevirirken neleri değiştirdiysek tekrar eski durumuna getiriyoruz.

 

Örnekler:

Indirect:

 

They said that while they were bathing they saw Ayşe examining their clothes.

1- "that" kalkar.

2- Tırnak ve virgül gelir.

3- they = we olarak değişir.

4- were = are olarak değişir.

5- their = our olarak değişir.

6- saw = see olarak değişir.

 

Direct

They said, "While we are bathing we see. Ayşe examing our clothes."

 

Indirect

The doctor said that he had to have an operation then.

 

Direct

The doctor said, "I must have an operation now."

 

Bu cümlede neler yaptık görelim:

1- "that" kalkar.

2- tırnak ve virgül gelir.

3- he = I olarak değişir.

4- had to = must olarak değişir.

5- then — now olarak değişir.

 

Soru ve emir cümlelerinde de aynen düz cümlede yaptığımız gibi ters işlem yaparız.

 

Indirect

Jim asked Marf if Barbara had given her the book the previous day.

 

Direct

Jim asked Mary, "Did Barbara give you the book yesterday?"

 

Bu cümlenin soru cümlesi olduğunu (bağlaç olarak kullandığımız) "If" bağlacından anladık. Bu cümleyi "direct" cümleye nasıl çevirdik görelim:

1- "If" kalkar.

2- Tırnak ve virgül gelir.

3- Cümle "soru cümlesi" olur.

4- Past perfect tense = Simple Past Tense olur.

5- The previous day = yesterday olur.

 

Diğer cümlelerde de aynı bu yolu izleriz. Şimdi örnekleri çoğaltalım:

 

Indirect

The doctor told my father that smoking was bad for him.

 

Direct

The doctor told my father, "Smoking is bad for you."

 

Indirect

The teacher said that Erdal didn't do his homework.

 

Direct

The teacher said, "Erdal doesn't do his homework."

 

Indirect

Jim told Mary not to play the piano.

 

Direct 

Jim told Mary, "Don't play the piano."

 

Indirect

Ayşe asked me why I bought Mehmet a present.

 

Direct

Ayşe asked me, "Why do you buy Mehmet a present?"

 

Indirect

Ahmet wanted to know if his mother lost weight.

 

Direct

Ahmet wanted to know, "Does my mother lose weight?"

 

Indirect

Alice told me that she would leave the next day.

 

Direct

Alice told me, "I shall leave tomorrow."

 

Indirect

Mr Steve asked me to come to class the following day.

 

Direct

Mr. Steve asked me, "Come to class tomorrow."

 

İngilizce Mektup Örnekleri

Yayınlanma 9.Sınıf İngilizce Konu Anlatımı

BUSINESS LETTERS / İŞ MEKTUPLARI

 

The Union Comp 

 

İst. Turkey April 13 1995 

 

Gentlemen: 

 

Please send the following as quickly as you can and charge to our account: 

 

60 boxes of A4 papers 

 

100 boxes of metal clips 

 

Yours very truly 

 

 

 

Gentlemen: 

 

Please send samples and quotations on one million pencil sharpeners. 

 

At the same time let us know if you can supply 100 Ace staplers model 112 giving 

 

us a quotation on this also. 

 

We would like to have the information by the end of this week if possible. 

 

Yours truly 

 

 

 

Dear Mr. Brown 

 

Many thanks for your order which has been forwarded to our plant for immediate manufacture. 

 

take pleasure in assuring you that I will personally follow through on your order and see that each piece is made exactly according to specifications. 

 

You can count on delivery on or before April as promised. 

 

Sincerely yours 

 

 

 

Dear Mrs. Brown 

 

In checking our accounts we find there is a balance of 42.50 dollars due us for purchases made in September. As you have do doubt overlooked this bill we are bringing it to your attention. 

 

Will you please send your check at once so we can clear this indebtedness form our books and bring your account up to date. 

 

Yours very truly 

 

 

 

LETTERS OF APPLICATION / İŞ İÇİN BAŞVURU MEKTUPLARI 

 

Dear sir

 

According to this morning's Guardian you are looking for an efficient experienced secretary.

 

During the past 10 years I have served in that capacity to three prominent executives all three of whom will vouch for my efficiency and dependability. They are....

 

I am 30 years of age a high school graduate unmarried living at home with my family. My former associates will tell you that I am neat accurate and painstaking in my work; that I am tactful and courteous; resourceful loyal to the job and of plea¬sing personality.

 

I am well-trained and experienced in all the many duties and responsibilities of a good secretary; and I should like the opportunity of coming in and talking with you personally.

 

My telephone number is 223445. I can start at once if you like.

 

Sincerely yours

 

Dear Sir

 

I have just graduated form Hacettepe University department of Linguistics. I would like to do post-graduate studies in your faculty. Will you kindly send the requi¬red information and documents for the application for a master's degree?

 

I'd appreciate if I can receive them as soon as possible.

 

Sincerely yours 

 

LETTERS OF CONGRATULATIONS / KUTLAMA MEKTUPLARI

 

Dear Mrs. Bradbury: 

 

We hear that John has graduated form Harvard and that he made a very fine record for himself there. You must be proud of his splendid accomplishment and we are very happy for you.

 

Please give John our congratulations and our best wishes for success and happiness in his chosen work.

 

Sincerely yours 

 

Dear Dr. Arnold: 

 

My warm congratulations to you on your election as president of the state medical association. It is a reward you highly deserve for your many years of splendid service to the profession and to the people of the state.

 

I can't think of any man who would have been a better choice. My very best wishes to you.

 

Sincerely yours

 

THANK YOU LETTERS / TEŞEKKÜR MEKTUPLARI 

 

Dear Mrs Martin 

 

I just can't tell you how flattered I am that you should have remembered my birthday. It was a real pleasure to receive your charming note this morning Thank you so much for your good wishes.

 

Sincerely yours 

 

Alice

 

Dear Miss Walter 

 

Thank you very much for the lovely flowers! We liked it so much. David is very delighted and sends his thanks too.

 

With best wishes from both of us.

 

Cordially yours 

 

Helen

 

Dear Mrs. Webb: 

 

Thank you so much for your kind invitation to dinner on Saturday March 20th. Both my husband and I will be delighted to come. It will also be a pleasure to meet the new director for this division.

 

Yours sincerely 

 

Mary Street

 

 

 

LETTERS OF CONDOLENCE / BAŞSAĞLIĞI MEKTUPLARI 

 

Dear Mary:

 

I know words aren't much comfort at a time like this. But I'd like you to know we are thinking of you; and that my family and I send our heartfelt sympathy.

 

Sincerely

 

John

 

Dear Alice 

 

We were saddened to hear of your father's death this morning. We can well appreciate your great sense of loss. Please accept our deepest sympathy

 

Sincerely yours 

 

Alison

 

 

 

LETTER OF RECOMMENDATION / REFERENCE / 

 

REFERANS MEKTUBU 

 

TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN

 

I have known Mr. Can Barış for over five years as his instructor in several courses. Can is indeed a very conscientious and serious-minded person and has remarkable attributes as a student. He always comes to class well prepared and participates in class discussions. He has a good grounding in linguistic studies and enthusiastic about doing further work. He has a fairly good command of English and seriously interested in improving it.

 

He is sociable person and I do believe he will be one of the most promising candidates for post- graduate studies.

 

Yours sincerely

 

Dear Sir:

 

Mr. James Brown has given us your name as reference. He tells us he was credit manager of your store for three years and that he left on his own accord to make another connection.

 

We shall appreciate any information you can give us about his personality reliabilityjudgement.... and especially his ability to work with others.

 

We will of course keep your reply strictly confidential. / Very truly yours

 

 

To,Do Ande Make

Yayınlanma 9.Sınıf İngilizce Konu Anlatımı

SThe verbs do and make are often confused by

nonnative speakers.

 

    do

    often has the meaning of “perform a routine or assigned activity.”

    make

    usually has the sense of producing or creating something.

 

 

do your homework

 

do your best

 

do business with

 

do the ironing, washing, cleaning, housework

 

do the dishes

 

do exercises

 

do a favor

 

do research

 

do your job

 

 

 

but…

 

 

make a donation—make a contribution (in class)

 

make a mistake--make an error

 

make friends with

 

make money

 

make a noise

 

make peace—make war

 

make a plan

 

make a promise

 

make a speech

 

make a turn

 

make a comparion

 

make a decision (the British “take” decisions)

 

make a discovery

 

 

 

and…

 

To make matters worse, one expression has both! “Make do”

means to manage with what is available. (I couldn’t find any cous cous in the

store, so I had to make do with rice.  I

can’t afford to buy a new car this year, so I’m going to have to make do with

my old Ford for another year.)

 

Sentence Fragment

Yayınlanma 9.Sınıf İngilizce Konu Anlatımı

entence Fragments

 

Sentences are the most important units in writing. That sounds obvious, but think about the times that you've seen sentence

fragments and run-on sentences. When you include run-on sentences (sometimes called

fused sentences or comma splices) or unintended fragments in your writing, your writing takes on a very unprofessional appearance.

 

Here are some examples of fragments:

 

a. The excitement generated by

the speaker's visit.

 

b. Waiting in the apartment for our guests to come.

 

c. Because of the serious

unrest in the capital.

 

d. Although the Ambassador was

a fluent Portuguese speaker.

 

 

 

Remember that a complete

sentence includes four things:

 

 

 

 

a subject,

a verb,

a capital letter at the

beginning and

punctuation at the end

 

 

Sentence a. is a fragment

because it lacks a verb. Be careful, there is a word that looks like

a verb! What about generated? Sorry,

generated does not function as a verb here.

It introduces the phrase that describes the

excitement.

 

 

 

The other three sentences are actually dependent

clauses. Here are some ways to fix these:

 

 

Types Of Verbs

Yayınlanma 9.Sınıf İngilizce Konu Anlatımı

GROUP I Continuous Verbs

 

  The first group, called "Continuous Verbs", contains most English verbs. These verbs are usually physical actions which you can see somebody doing. These verbs can be used in all tenses.

 

Continuous Verbs

 to run, to walk, to eat, to fly, to go, to say, to touch etc.

 

Examples:

 

I eat dinner every day. Correct

I am eating dinner now. Correct

 

 

GROUP II Non-continuous Verbs

 

The second group, called "Non-continuous Verbs", is smaller. These verbs are usually things you cannot see somebody doing. These verbs are rarely used in "continuous" tenses. They include:

 

Abstract Verbs

   to be, to want, to cost, to seem, to need, to care, to contain, to owe, to exist...

 

Possession Verbs

   to possess, to own, to belong...

 

Emotion Verbs

   to like, to love, to hate, to dislike, to fear, to envy, to mind...

 

Examples:

 

He is here now.    Correct

He is being here now.    Not Correct

 

He wants a drink now.    Correct

He is wanting a drink now.    Not Correct

 

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