Indrect Cümleleri Direct Cümleye Çevirmek

Yayınlanma 9.Sınıf İngilizce Konu Anlatımı


Meral told Ahmet, "I want a cake."


Bu cümleyi "Indirect" cümleye nasıl çevirdik?

1- Tırnak ve virgülü kaldırdık.

Tekrar yerine koyun.


2- Konuşan Meral olduğu için özneyi "she" olarak değiştirdik. "She" olarak değiştirdik.

"She" öznesini tekrar "I" olarak değiştirin.


3- Giriş cümlesi ile ana cümlenin arasına "that" bağlacı getirdik.

Şimde "That" bağlacını kaldırın.


4- Tırnak içindeki cümlenin zamanı Simple Present = Geniş zaman olduğu için bunu Simple past = -di'li geçmiş zamana çevirdik.

Simple Past Tense'şi tekrar Simple Present Tense yapın.


Böylece "Indirect" cümleyi tekrar "Direct" cümle şekline çevirmiş olursunuz.


Demekki burada ters bir işlem uygulanıyor. "Direct" bir cümleyi "Indirect" cümleye çevirirken neleri değiştirdiysek tekrar eski durumuna getiriyoruz.





They said that while they were bathing they saw Ayşe examining their clothes.

1- "that" kalkar.

2- Tırnak ve virgül gelir.

3- they = we olarak değişir.

4- were = are olarak değişir.

5- their = our olarak değişir.

6- saw = see olarak değişir.



They said, "While we are bathing we see. Ayşe examing our clothes."



The doctor said that he had to have an operation then.



The doctor said, "I must have an operation now."


Bu cümlede neler yaptık görelim:

1- "that" kalkar.

2- tırnak ve virgül gelir.

3- he = I olarak değişir.

4- had to = must olarak değişir.

5- then — now olarak değişir.


Soru ve emir cümlelerinde de aynen düz cümlede yaptığımız gibi ters işlem yaparız.



Jim asked Marf if Barbara had given her the book the previous day.



Jim asked Mary, "Did Barbara give you the book yesterday?"


Bu cümlenin soru cümlesi olduğunu (bağlaç olarak kullandığımız) "If" bağlacından anladık. Bu cümleyi "direct" cümleye nasıl çevirdik görelim:

1- "If" kalkar.

2- Tırnak ve virgül gelir.

3- Cümle "soru cümlesi" olur.

4- Past perfect tense = Simple Past Tense olur.

5- The previous day = yesterday olur.


Diğer cümlelerde de aynı bu yolu izleriz. Şimdi örnekleri çoğaltalım:



The doctor told my father that smoking was bad for him.



The doctor told my father, "Smoking is bad for you."



The teacher said that Erdal didn't do his homework.



The teacher said, "Erdal doesn't do his homework."



Jim told Mary not to play the piano.



Jim told Mary, "Don't play the piano."



Ayşe asked me why I bought Mehmet a present.



Ayşe asked me, "Why do you buy Mehmet a present?"



Ahmet wanted to know if his mother lost weight.



Ahmet wanted to know, "Does my mother lose weight?"



Alice told me that she would leave the next day.



Alice told me, "I shall leave tomorrow."



Mr Steve asked me to come to class the following day.



Mr. Steve asked me, "Come to class tomorrow."


İngilizce Mektup Örnekleri

Yayınlanma 9.Sınıf İngilizce Konu Anlatımı



The Union Comp 


İst. Turkey April 13 1995 




Please send the following as quickly as you can and charge to our account: 


60 boxes of A4 papers 


100 boxes of metal clips 


Yours very truly 






Please send samples and quotations on one million pencil sharpeners. 


At the same time let us know if you can supply 100 Ace staplers model 112 giving 


us a quotation on this also. 


We would like to have the information by the end of this week if possible. 


Yours truly 




Dear Mr. Brown 


Many thanks for your order which has been forwarded to our plant for immediate manufacture. 


take pleasure in assuring you that I will personally follow through on your order and see that each piece is made exactly according to specifications. 


You can count on delivery on or before April as promised. 


Sincerely yours 




Dear Mrs. Brown 


In checking our accounts we find there is a balance of 42.50 dollars due us for purchases made in September. As you have do doubt overlooked this bill we are bringing it to your attention. 


Will you please send your check at once so we can clear this indebtedness form our books and bring your account up to date. 


Yours very truly 






Dear sir


According to this morning's Guardian you are looking for an efficient experienced secretary.


During the past 10 years I have served in that capacity to three prominent executives all three of whom will vouch for my efficiency and dependability. They are....


I am 30 years of age a high school graduate unmarried living at home with my family. My former associates will tell you that I am neat accurate and painstaking in my work; that I am tactful and courteous; resourceful loyal to the job and of plea¬sing personality.


I am well-trained and experienced in all the many duties and responsibilities of a good secretary; and I should like the opportunity of coming in and talking with you personally.


My telephone number is 223445. I can start at once if you like.


Sincerely yours


Dear Sir


I have just graduated form Hacettepe University department of Linguistics. I would like to do post-graduate studies in your faculty. Will you kindly send the requi¬red information and documents for the application for a master's degree?


I'd appreciate if I can receive them as soon as possible.


Sincerely yours 




Dear Mrs. Bradbury: 


We hear that John has graduated form Harvard and that he made a very fine record for himself there. You must be proud of his splendid accomplishment and we are very happy for you.


Please give John our congratulations and our best wishes for success and happiness in his chosen work.


Sincerely yours 


Dear Dr. Arnold: 


My warm congratulations to you on your election as president of the state medical association. It is a reward you highly deserve for your many years of splendid service to the profession and to the people of the state.


I can't think of any man who would have been a better choice. My very best wishes to you.


Sincerely yours




Dear Mrs Martin 


I just can't tell you how flattered I am that you should have remembered my birthday. It was a real pleasure to receive your charming note this morning Thank you so much for your good wishes.


Sincerely yours 




Dear Miss Walter 


Thank you very much for the lovely flowers! We liked it so much. David is very delighted and sends his thanks too.


With best wishes from both of us.


Cordially yours 




Dear Mrs. Webb: 


Thank you so much for your kind invitation to dinner on Saturday March 20th. Both my husband and I will be delighted to come. It will also be a pleasure to meet the new director for this division.


Yours sincerely 


Mary Street






Dear Mary:


I know words aren't much comfort at a time like this. But I'd like you to know we are thinking of you; and that my family and I send our heartfelt sympathy.






Dear Alice 


We were saddened to hear of your father's death this morning. We can well appreciate your great sense of loss. Please accept our deepest sympathy


Sincerely yours 












I have known Mr. Can Barış for over five years as his instructor in several courses. Can is indeed a very conscientious and serious-minded person and has remarkable attributes as a student. He always comes to class well prepared and participates in class discussions. He has a good grounding in linguistic studies and enthusiastic about doing further work. He has a fairly good command of English and seriously interested in improving it.


He is sociable person and I do believe he will be one of the most promising candidates for post- graduate studies.


Yours sincerely


Dear Sir:


Mr. James Brown has given us your name as reference. He tells us he was credit manager of your store for three years and that he left on his own accord to make another connection.


We shall appreciate any information you can give us about his personality reliabilityjudgement.... and especially his ability to work with others.


We will of course keep your reply strictly confidential. / Very truly yours



To,Do Ande Make

Yayınlanma 9.Sınıf İngilizce Konu Anlatımı

SThe verbs do and make are often confused by

nonnative speakers.



    often has the meaning of “perform a routine or assigned activity.”


    usually has the sense of producing or creating something.



do your homework


do your best


do business with


do the ironing, washing, cleaning, housework


do the dishes


do exercises


do a favor


do research


do your job







make a donation—make a contribution (in class)


make a mistake--make an error


make friends with


make money


make a noise


make peace—make war


make a plan


make a promise


make a speech


make a turn


make a comparion


make a decision (the British “take” decisions)


make a discovery






To make matters worse, one expression has both! “Make do”

means to manage with what is available. (I couldn’t find any cous cous in the

store, so I had to make do with rice.  I

can’t afford to buy a new car this year, so I’m going to have to make do with

my old Ford for another year.)


Sentence Fragment

Yayınlanma 9.Sınıf İngilizce Konu Anlatımı

entence Fragments


Sentences are the most important units in writing. That sounds obvious, but think about the times that you've seen sentence

fragments and run-on sentences. When you include run-on sentences (sometimes called

fused sentences or comma splices) or unintended fragments in your writing, your writing takes on a very unprofessional appearance.


Here are some examples of fragments:


a. The excitement generated by

the speaker's visit.


b. Waiting in the apartment for our guests to come.


c. Because of the serious

unrest in the capital.


d. Although the Ambassador was

a fluent Portuguese speaker.




Remember that a complete

sentence includes four things:





a subject,

a verb,

a capital letter at the

beginning and

punctuation at the end



Sentence a. is a fragment

because it lacks a verb. Be careful, there is a word that looks like

a verb! What about generated? Sorry,

generated does not function as a verb here.

It introduces the phrase that describes the





The other three sentences are actually dependent

clauses. Here are some ways to fix these:



Types Of Verbs

Yayınlanma 9.Sınıf İngilizce Konu Anlatımı

GROUP I Continuous Verbs


  The first group, called "Continuous Verbs", contains most English verbs. These verbs are usually physical actions which you can see somebody doing. These verbs can be used in all tenses.


Continuous Verbs

 to run, to walk, to eat, to fly, to go, to say, to touch etc.




I eat dinner every day. Correct

I am eating dinner now. Correct



GROUP II Non-continuous Verbs


The second group, called "Non-continuous Verbs", is smaller. These verbs are usually things you cannot see somebody doing. These verbs are rarely used in "continuous" tenses. They include:


Abstract Verbs

   to be, to want, to cost, to seem, to need, to care, to contain, to owe, to exist...


Possession Verbs

   to possess, to own, to belong...


Emotion Verbs

   to like, to love, to hate, to dislike, to fear, to envy, to mind...




He is here now.    Correct

He is being here now.    Not Correct


He wants a drink now.    Correct

He is wanting a drink now.    Not Correct